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Complete Guidelines, Operating Principles and Procedures for Shot Blasting Machines?

Sep. 01, 2020

Shot Blast Machinery

Shot Blasting Machine manufacturers often use the word "shot peening" to define the various processes, such as sand, Abrasive Blasting, Shot peening, and medium Shot peening. Although the process of shot blasting remains the same, the capacity, size, and structural design of shot blasting machines may vary.

The blasting machine USES a mechanical method to push the abrasive through a centrifugal wheel to remove the deposits and impurity layers on the surface of metal and steel products. There are three basic objectives that require sandblasting prior to product completion:

1. Clean and descaling surfaces in metal castings and forgings.

2. Enhance the adhesion of the coating on the metal product surface.

3. Change the properties of metal or steel surfaces by removing deposits and impurities.

What is a shot blasting machine?

Shot blasting machine is a closed device designed to clean and prepare metal, stone and other surface sandblasting. This is a machine for peening, cleaning forgings, castings, steel surfaces, heavy metal structures, rusty metal parts, and other metal parts. The shot blasting machine USES the shot throwing agent to remove surface rust, welding slag, and dirt on the metal parts in the closed chamber to make them uniform, shiny and improve the coating quality of the anti-rust chemicals.

The shot blasting machine has a closed chamber for shot blasting and sandblasting and has a light wheel that can rotate continuously at high speed. It can also be shot peening on metal parts, such as steel shot, steel grain, or wire cutting shot, for surface treatment. The production capacity of each bare wheel increased from about 60 kg/min to 1200 kg/min.

The shot blasting machine also has a dust collecting system to prevent tiny particles, pollutants, dust particles, etc. from escaping from the machine into the surrounding area. The dust collector connected to the shot blasting machine can prevent waste of abrasive and prevent environmental pollution. As a leading manufacturer of shot blasting machines in China, MSL manufactures highly reliable, low-cost shot blasting machines that are completely free of dust and pollution.、

There are several types of shot blasting machines for different types of metal and steel parts, such as:

  • Drum shot blasting machine (vibration belt movement)

  • Table type

  • Hanger type

  • Stone blasting cleaning

  • RBM (Rotary barrel type)

The type, shape, design, weight, and size of the metal or steel parts you must blast determine the type of shot blasting machine required.

Shot blasting technology and application of shot blasting machine

Shot blasting is the process of cleaning surfaces (such as iron, steel, cast iron parts, forgings, rusty pipes, iron bars, engine, and automobile parts) by blasting abrasive materials (such as steel balls or pellets) at extremely high speeds using centrifugal force. Force generated by rotating disk at medium speed in shot blasting machine. Shot blasting machine is also used to change the mechanical properties or various components, so as to improve the fatigue resistance of springs, gears, etc.

Shot blast Machinery does not produce a lot of dust and is more environmentally friendly than a blasting process, which is why it is also known as dust-free blasting. The shot blasting machine is like a closed chamber, so the dust particles generated during the shot blasting process will remain in the chamber and will not pollute the environment.

How does the sandblasting machine work?

  • Operation mode:

The door of the machine is opened and the components are loaded onto the machine's annular rubber belt conveyor. Rubber conveyor belt rolls assembly and ensures that the assembly is fully exposed. The high speed abrasive will drop onto the tumbling assembly and be cleaned. After the sandblasting cleaning cycle, close the grinding wheel and open the door. The assembly is unloaded onto the cart by moving the conveyor in the opposite direction. Always ask the manufacturer of the shot blasting machine about the quality of the conveyor belt to ensure lasting shot blasting capability.

  • Workbox/Cabinet

The heavy-duty welding cabinet is made of high-quality heavy-duty steel and is mounted on a rigid structural steel frame. The direct sandblasting area of the cabinet is equipped with 8 to 10 mm thick manganese steel oversize hard lining plate. The interior of the door and cabinet are lined with an extra grade rubber board with a thickness of 6 mm. Due to the runout of abrasive, the rubber sheet has special wear resistance. Horizontal doors with limit switches are provided for safety. The interior of the door is fully lined with rubber lining. The inside of the door is provided with a rubber gasket to prevent the abrasive from escaping from the casing. The door is fitted with a limit switch and provides a lever lock for locking the door and preventing abrasive escape.

  • Work conveyor:

An annular perforated rubber conveyor is provided. The gentle rolling action of the rubber conveyor exposes all surfaces of the component to the explosion flow. The structure of the conveyor belt is made of wear-resistant rubber with a thickness of 15 mm. A tensioning device for the conveyor belt is provided. The conveyor belt is driven by three sprockets located on the outside of the cabinet through a chain drive system. The used abrasive falls through a hole in the conveyor belt into a funnel in the cabinet, which is guided to the elevator's trunk for recycling.

  • Unicycle unit (blast furnace wheel assembly) :

The spray-wheel assembly is mounted on a steel plate 10 to 12 mm thick. The device consists of an assembled steel housing for mounting different alloy steel bushings, rotors, blades, control cages, impellers, and feed ports. The rotor is made of EN class material and has been fully hardened to full depth. The drive system of the jet wheel (rotor) requires a set of base bearings that are self-lubricated and self-aligning. The rotor is dynamically balanced. The driving shaft of the spring-wheel is made of EN grade material and is suitably precision ground to achieve the highest accuracy. The latest nylon sandwich flat belt drive system is provided to drive the rotors, which improves power transmission efficiency by 15%.

  • Abrasive circulation system:

The rotor of the grinding wheel assembly sprays the abrasive onto the perforated belt. The waste abrasive from the top of the perforated belt fell into the hopper of the cabinet. The abrasive in the hopper is transferred to the dustproof hood of the bucket elevator and then guided to the rotary screen/aerodynamic separation system (optional). The tensioning device of the lift belt is arranged at the top of the lift so that there is no belt overflow. The rotary screen/aerodynamic separation system continuously separates the available abrasive from the unavailable abrasive and debris. Usable abrasives are transferred to the storage hopper for recycling. The storage hopper is equipped with an electronic grinding liquid level sensor. These sensors are connected to a supplementary abrasive bucket located at the bottom of the bucket elevator.

  • Bag filter system:

The utility model provides a cloth bag type dust collector with a plurality of tubular filter bags. Dusty air enters the collector from the side and then goes into the settling and equalizing chamber. By expanding in the balance chamber, the air velocity drops, and the flow is distributed throughout the settlement area. Air then flows up and away from the storage hopper, causing heavier dust particles to settle and fine particles to float up into the filter tube. Clean air goes through the pipes and then out through the blower. Remove dust from the filter bag by shaking the test tube mechanically/manually at regular intervals. Dust is collected in the dust catcher tray. Remove the tray regularly and empty it. The filter bag is made of satin woven filter cloth. The seams should be sewn with coarse cotton thread. The blower unit of the dust collector is dynamically balanced. The dust collector is made of modular design and all joints are sealed with imported sealant. Shot blasting machines must be used and appropriate safety measures are taken, and you will find more information about industrial health and safety standards for sandblasting operations.

Evaluate operation status and shot blasting effect

The primary purpose of the evaluation process is to prepare data for decision making and to relate to process conditions, their mechanisms, and surface cleaning performance. Thus, it provides the background for actions aimed at improving the performance of the shot blasting machine and making the process more effective. The method outlined in this paper provides the simplest measurement and quantitative calculation methods.

Cleaning properties: After separation of the attached molded mixture, the cleanliness of the casting is measured by surface roughness. The cleaning effect depends on the amount of abrasive supplied to the turbine as a function of the effective injection time. The lower the detergent content in the tank, the lower the concentration of the peening tower, and the less effective the removal of the formed mixture may be.

A load of driving motor in blower: High load is recommended to maintain maximum power rating. According to the power level, the shot blasting rate (kg/s) should be as large as possible. The maximum power level ensures short cleaning time and efficient separation of molded plastics. The level of the applied load is related to the level of the tank filled with abrasive.

Conditions to protect the screen in the separator: the screen must be kept clean to ensure the safe operation of the separation rotor, fitting sleeve, and sandblast rotor. Free flow through the clean screen of the abrasive layer to form a uniform curtain, thus ensuring effective dust removal from the abrasive. In addition, the fine particles of the used lens can be easily removed. You need to flow at a specified speed.

The proportion of non-metallic parts: Tests show that the proportion of contaminants in the circulating system of the abrasive (e.g. shot peening or shot peening mixture) should not exceed 1%.A higher percentage of these scores can result in a dramatic reduction in the durability of machine components, even by 80%.

Particle size distribution in abrasive materials: Indicators that characterize particles are used to determine whether fresh reagents should be added to homogenize the mixture or to replace the used medium. The abrasive distribution and its quality must be evaluated because the presence of abrasive can cause wear on machine parts, especially on sandblasted blades.

Noise and vibration levels: When machine parts have been worn and damaged, noise and vibration will usually occur and exceed the allowable levels. Noise and vibration levels increase when rotating elements are unbalanced or screw connections are loose.

Application of shot blasting in various industries

  • Shipbuilding and shipbuilding yards

  • Aerospace maintenance

  • Iron and steel castings and other metals

  • Aluminum casting

  • forgings

  • rail

  • foundry

  • The steel structure

  • Cars and buses are painted

  • Aluminum alloy wheel hub cleaning

Shot blasting is also used to clean the floors, roads, and exterior walls of construction sites.

Other applications of shot blasting include a coating or recoating water pipes and tanks to prevent corrosion prior to cleaning them.

When we talk about shot peening (no air), it is important to remember that we are referring to a shot peening machine, which works by converting the motor's energy directly into kinetic energy by rotating a centrifugal wheel at a speed of at least 60 kg per minute. It can reach 1200 kilograms per minute.

Because of the number of sandblasting machines, large metal parts or surfaces that cannot be effectively cleaned by other traditional or manual processes are trusted, trusted, burred, desander, or cleaned using sandblasting machines.

The difference between sandblasting and sandblasting is easy to understand. In sandblasting, compressed air is used to push the abrasive to the surface that needs cleaning, and in sandblasting, a centrifugal wheel is used to use an electric motor to push the abrasive to the surface. Shot blasting machine manufacturer in India, used for forging parts, casting parts, shot blasting, sandblasting machine, and iron parts cleaning.

Shot Blast Machinery

Shot Blast Machinery

Advantages of Shot Blasting Machine:

  • Shot blasting is cheap and time-saving, and the abrasive is reusable, making shot blasting extremely economical.

  • Clean and smooth the metal surface without damaging the surface.

  • It is economical to use and environmentally friendly because it produces very little dust compared to sandblasting.

  • Effectively prepare a surface for coating or recoating.

  • To smooth and effectively roughen a rough surface.

  • The flexibility of using various types of abrasive materials that can be used in a shot blasting machine makes shot blasting the ideal method of cleaning or preparing different methods of metal surfaces and components according to the need for cleaning (e.g. glass beads, steel pellets, steel sand, etc.).

Factors affecting the blasting process and its effect:

  • The condition of surfaces or metal parts to be cleaned and contaminants deposited on the surfaces to be removed.

  • Speed and abrasives used to treat surfaces.

  • The working condition of the shot blasting machine.

  • Dimensions of abrasive.

  • The hardness of abrasive.

  • The humidity and temperature levels resulting from the metal's exposure to the environment make it prone to oxidation.

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